28 May 2001 Model-based multiconstrained integration of invasive electrophysiology with other modalities
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Following recent developments, most brain imaging modalities (MR, CT, SPECT, PET) can nowadays be registered and integrated in a manner almost simple enough for routine use. By design though, these modalities are still not able to match the principles and near real-time capabilities of the much simpler (but of lower spatial resolution) EEG, thus the need to integrate it as well, along with - for some patients - the more accurate invasive electrophysiology measurements taken directly in contact with brain structures. A standard control CT (or MR) is routinely performed after the implantation of invasive electrodes. After registration with the other modalities, the initial estimates of the electrodes' locations extracted from the CT (or MR) are iteratively improved by using a geometrical model of the electrodes' arrangement (grids, strips, etc.) And other optional constraints (morphology, etc.). Unlike the direct 3D pointing of each electrode in the surgical suite - which can still act as a complementary approach - this technique estimates the most likely location of the electrodes during monitoring and can also deal with non cortical arrangements (internal strips, depth electrodes, etc.). Although not always applicable to normal volunteers because of its invasive components, this integration further opens the door towards an improved understanding of a very complex biological system.
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Luc Marie Bidaut, Luc Marie Bidaut, } "Model-based multiconstrained integration of invasive electrophysiology with other modalities", Proc. SPIE 4319, Medical Imaging 2001: Visualization, Display, and Image-Guided Procedures, (28 May 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.428115; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.428115

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