3 July 2001 Automated detection of venous beading in retinal images
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The purpose of this paper is to present a method for automatic detection of venous beadings in the spatial domain. The method consists of three steps: (1) creating an accurate vein map, (2) creating an accurate vein width map where the width of every vein indicated by a string of numbers, each of which indicates the width of the vein in pixels at that location, and (3) introducing an automatic venous beading detection algorithm. The parameters used in the beading detection algorithm include the widths of the veins at two adjacent local maxima and minima, the difference between the two widths, and the lengths of the broad and narrow sections. The ranges of the values of these parameters were obtained empirically. Standard Photographs 6B were used to test the algorithm and the result was quite satisfactory.
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Samuel C. Lee, Samuel C. Lee, Yiming Wang, Yiming Wang, Weining Tan, Weining Tan, } "Automated detection of venous beading in retinal images", Proc. SPIE 4322, Medical Imaging 2001: Image Processing, (3 July 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.431016; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.431016

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