20 August 2001 Deep x-ray lithography with the SU-8 resist
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Abstract
Although the process of deep x-ray lithography with PMMA achieves good resolution, it requires significant exposure times because of the low sensitivity of PMMA to x-rays. Therefore resist materials, which can achieve high resolution, but which are inherently more sensitive than PMMA, are desirable. Here it is shown, that x-ray exposures of the SU-8 resist can achieve high resolution with substantially reduced exposure times. Irradiation at the synchrotron source of DCI at Lure (Paris) and MAXLAB (Lund, Sweden) demonstrated a reduced exposure time for a 600 micrometers thick SU-8 relative to PMMA. The does needed to obtain standing structures was 30 J/Cm3 for DCI and 52 J/CM3 for MAXLAB. A 600 micrometers thick PMMA resist requires a typical bottom does of 4 kJ/cm3, so Su-8 is considerably more sensitive to x-rays than PMMA. Preliminary critical dimension measurements (CD) of the 600 micrometers SU-8 resist structures have been obtained for the entire height of the structure, which was exposed at DCI. The CD measurements were made in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) using 10 micrometers wide structures, which have a 20micrometers pitch, this being used to calibrate the measurements. These measurements show that the gain in the critical dimension per structure edge is dependent on the bottom dose. Doses of 30 J/cm3 achieved a CD gain per edge of +0.5 micrometers , while doses of 40 J/cm3 Yielded a CD gain per edge of 0.9 micrometers . However, the gain in the CD per edge is critically dependent on the solvent content in the resist. Doses of 40 J/cm3 into a resist with a 2% residual solvent content yielded CD gains per edge of 0.3micrometers . In addition, the dose profile in the resist does not change the CD values significantly. It has been shown that the resolution of the x-ray exposed SU-8 structures compare quite favorable with PMMA, but the exposure time for SU-8 is approximately 100 times less than that for PMMA. This significantly improves throughput for deep x-ray lithography processes.
© (2001) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Laurence Singleton, Laurence Singleton, Alexei L. Bogdanov, Alexei L. Bogdanov, Serguei Peredkov, Serguei Peredkov, Oliver Wilhelmi, Oliver Wilhelmi, Andreas Schneider, Andreas Schneider, Carsten Cremers, Carsten Cremers, Stephan Megtert, Stephan Megtert, Andreas Schmidt, Andreas Schmidt, } "Deep x-ray lithography with the SU-8 resist", Proc. SPIE 4343, Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, (20 August 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.436647; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.436647
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