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22 August 2001 Open-contact failure detection of via holes by using voltage contrast
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We used two techniques to determine the sensitivity of a scanning-electron-microscope-based wafer-inspection system in detecting open-contact failures. (1) The correlation between the contact resistance and the brightness of the voltage-contrast image as captured by the system was obtained experimentally. (2) A voltage-contrast simulation was developed and applied to derive a correlation between resistance and brightness from these results. A close agreement between the experimental results and the calculated values was obtained. We succeeded in clarifying the determinants of the sensitivity of open-contact-failure detection. The brightness, over part of its range, appears to be proportional to log(R*Ip) where R is the resistance and Ip is the irradiating electron-beam current. This relationship indicates that the sensitivity of open-contact failure detection is determined by Ip. Control of Ip can be used to improve the voltage contrast, and this, in turn, can improve the sensitivity of detection.
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Hidetoshi Nishiyama, Mari Nozoe, Koji Aramaki, Osamu Watanabe, and Yoshihiro Ikeda "Open-contact failure detection of via holes by using voltage contrast", Proc. SPIE 4344, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, (22 August 2001);

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