22 August 2001 Three-dimensional simulations of SEM imaging and charging
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Abstract
SEM based CD control and wafer inspection has an increasingly active role in the semiconductor industry. Current design rules require a CD control with a precision in the nanometer range. In order to achieve this precision, a complete model of the image formation mechanism is desirable. For this reason we present a three-dimensional simulation of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The simulations include Monte Carlo electron scattering, charging in the substrate and electron ray-tracing in the column. We investigate some specific cases in CD-SEM metrology: We will describe the effect of scan orientation relative to the orientation of the imaged feature on the apparent beam width (ABW), the effect of magnification on contact imaging, and the effect of residue in resist trenches. Our results, regarding these examples, clearly indicate that a fully three-dimensional numerical simulation is needed to obtain an understanding of image formation and resolution limiting factors.
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Luca Grella, Luca Grella, Gian Lorusso, Gian Lorusso, Tim Niemi, Tim Niemi, Tzu-chin Chuang, Tzu-chin Chuang, David L. Adler, David L. Adler, } "Three-dimensional simulations of SEM imaging and charging", Proc. SPIE 4344, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, (22 August 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.436750; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.436750
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