24 August 2001 Top surface imaging at 157-nm
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Abstract
Top surface imaging (TSI) has had an interesting history. This process showed great promise in the late 1980's and several attempts were made to introduce it to full-scale manufacturing. Unfortunately, defect density problems limited the process and it fell from favor. TSI emerged again as an important part of the EUV and 193 nm strategies in the early stages of those programs because it offered a solution to the high opacity of common resist materials at both wavelengths. A flurry of research in both areas identified the seemingly insurmountable problem of line edge roughness than typical single layer resist systems. This has largely been due to the development of polymers specifically tailored for this end use. The optimum materials must be moderately transparent and have high Tg's in the silylated state. The 157nm program has much in common with the early stages of the 193nm program. The optical density of even 193nm resist materials at 157nm is far too high to allow their use in single layer applications. The less stringent optical density of even 193nm resist materials at 157nm is far too high to allow their use in single layer applications. The less stringent optical density requirements of TSI make it a potentially viable imaging scheme for use at 157nm. Various TSI materials, including the traditional poly(t-BOC- hydroxystyrene), as well as novel aliphatic cyclic polymers bearing bis-trifluoromethyl carbinol substituents, have been investigated for use at 157 nm, and smooth high-resolution images have been generated.
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Andrew Thomas Jamieson, Andrew Thomas Jamieson, Mark H. Somervell, Mark H. Somervell, Hoang Vi Tran, Hoang Vi Tran, Raymond Jui-Pu Hung, Raymond Jui-Pu Hung, Scott A. MacDonald, Scott A. MacDonald, C. Grant Willson, C. Grant Willson, } "Top surface imaging at 157-nm", Proc. SPIE 4345, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVIII, (24 August 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.436872; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.436872
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