14 September 2001 Optical damage testing of materials for use in 157-nm photolithographic systems
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As photolithographic processes utilize ever shorter wavelengths to produce more densely packed circuitry on silicon chips, the choice of materials suitable for use in the DUV spectral region becomes severely limited. We report here on preliminary life test results for calcium fluoride irradiated at 157 nm by F2 laser beams. The sample housing and beam delivery tubes were purged continuously with high purity nitrogen to keep the background oxygen level as low as possible and to sweep away any potential organic gases liberated from the sample mounting hardware and overall experimental apparatus. Data were collected to evaluate induced changes in transmission, wavefront distortion and birefringence over the course of billions of shots at a nominal fluence of 0.1 mJ/cm2.
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Richard G. Morton, Richard G. Morton, Todd J. Embree, Todd J. Embree, Zsolt Bor, Zsolt Bor, Chris K. Van Peski, Chris K. Van Peski, } "Optical damage testing of materials for use in 157-nm photolithographic systems", Proc. SPIE 4346, Optical Microlithography XIV, (14 September 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.435648; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.435648

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