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14 September 2001 Rigorous electromagnetic simulation applied to alignment systems
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Abstract
Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to provide benchmark data and understanding of key parameters in the design of topographical features of alignment marks. Periodic large silicon trenches are analyzed as a function of wavelength (530-800 nm), duty cycle, depth, slope and angle of incidence. The signals are well behaved except when the trench width becomes about 1 micrometers or smaller. Segmentation of the trenches to form 3D marks shows that a segmentation period of 2-5 wavelengths makes the diffraction in the (1,1) direction about 1/3 to 1/2 of that in the main first order (1,0). Transmission alignment marks nanoimprint lithography using the difference between the +1 and -1 reflected orders showed a sensitivity of the difference signal to misalignment of 0.7%/nm for rigorous simulation and 0.5%/nm for simple ray-tracing. The sensitivity to a slanted substrate indentation was 10 nm off-set per degree of tilt from horizontal.
© (2001) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Yunfei Deng, Thomas V. Pistor, and Andrew R. Neureuther "Rigorous electromagnetic simulation applied to alignment systems", Proc. SPIE 4346, Optical Microlithography XIV, (14 September 2001); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.435695
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