19 September 2001 Novel focal plane array integration technology for use in eye-safe imaging ladar receivers
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A novel integration technology for the fabrication of active, or passive, focal plane array imagers has been developed. The integration scheme is based on the transfer of epitaxial layers to a surrogate substrate without critical alignment. Once the epitaxial layer is successfully transferred to the surrogate substrate, photodetector isolation, passivation, and fabrication are completed. To demonstrate the potential of the process, 320 x 256 arrays of InGaAs mesas were successfully transferred onto commercially-available focal plane array readout integrated circuits. Pitch and pixel resolution are limited by the available standard photolithography. InGaAs mesas transferred to silicon wafers with a pitch as small as 10 microns have been demonstrated. The process was optimized for the fabrication of high-performance vertical Schottky photodiodes. Dark-currents below 5 nA were observed with 44 mm diameter photodiodes. Responsivities of 0.55 A/W were obtained with a 1 micron InGaAs absorber. The new integration process can be used to easily achieve photodiodes with bandwidths higher than 20 GHz, without the use of an air-bridge.
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Kenneth Vaccaro, Kenneth Vaccaro, Stephen M. Spaziani, Stephen M. Spaziani, Helen M. Dauplaise, Helen M. Dauplaise, Darlene Schwall, Darlene Schwall, Mark Roland, Mark Roland, James E. Murguia, James E. Murguia, Joseph P. Lorenzo, Joseph P. Lorenzo, "Novel focal plane array integration technology for use in eye-safe imaging ladar receivers", Proc. SPIE 4377, Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, (19 September 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.440099; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.440099


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