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22 August 2001 Enhanced sensitivity for hyperspectral infrared chemical detection
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The sensitivity of imaging, hyperspectral, passive remote sensors in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectral region is currently limited by the ability to achieve an accurate, time-invariant, pixel-to-pixel calibration of the elements composing the Focal Plane Array (FPA). Pursuing conventional techniques to improve the accuracy of the calibration will always be limited by the trade-off between the time required to collect calibration data of improved precision and the drift in the pixel response that occurs on a timescale comparable to the calibration time. This paper will present the results from a study of a method to circumvent these problems. Improvements in detection capability can be realized by applying a quick, repetitive dither of the field of view (FOV) of the imager (by a small angular amount), so that radiance/spectral differences between individual target areas can be measured by a single FPA pixel. By performing this difference measurement repetitively both residual differences in the pixel-to-pixel calibration and 1/f detector drift noise can effectively be eliminated. In addition, variations in the atmosphere and target scene caused by the motion of the sensor platform will cause signal drifts that this technique would not be able to remove. This method allows improvements in sensitivity that could potentially scale as the square root of the observation time.
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Phillip L. Jacobson, Roger R. Petrin, Aaron C. Koskelo, Charles Robert Quick Jr., and Jerry Romero "Enhanced sensitivity for hyperspectral infrared chemical detection", Proc. SPIE 4378, Chemical and Biological Sensing II, (22 August 2001);

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