18 October 2001 Approaches to underground imaging for object localization
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In this paper, we work towards a robust approach for imaging weak-contrast objects buried under a rough soil/air interface using data from an electromagnetic GPR array. A major source of variability in observed GPR signals is due to reflection from a rough and random ground. Our approach to imaging is based on us of physical and statistical modeling techniques to estimate and compensate for this rough soil/air interface. An approximate physical model based on Gaussian beams is used to model the interaction of the illumination with the ground and estimate the surface profile. This estimated surface profile is then used to correct the raw data for the effects of the rough surface. The corrected data may subsequently be used to reconstruct the subsurface region and localize anomalies. In this stage, statistical models can be used to account for both noise and residual unmodeled effects.
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Vincenzo Galdi, Vincenzo Galdi, William Clement Karl, William Clement Karl, David A. Castanon, David A. Castanon, Leopold B. Felsen, Leopold B. Felsen, } "Approaches to underground imaging for object localization", Proc. SPIE 4394, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets VI, (18 October 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.445436; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.445436

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