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18 October 2001 Effect of soil wetting and drying on DNT vapor flux: laboratory data and T2TNT model comparisons
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Sensing the chemical signature emitted from the main charge explosives from buried landmines is being considered for field applications with advanced sensors of increased sensitivity and specificity. The chemical signature, however, may undergo many interactions with the soil system, altering the signal strength at the ground surface by many orders of magnitude. A simulation code named T2TNT was developed specifically to evaluate buried landmine chemical transport issues. A vapor-solid partitioning parameter that is strongly dependent on soil moisture content is included in T2TNT. Laboratory soil vapor flux experiments were conducted to provide data to validate the T2TNT model under well-constrained laboratory testing conditions. The landmine source release, soil transport and surface flux was simulated by aqueous phase injection of DNT, evaporation induced upward water flux and solid phase microextraction sampling of headspace vapor in an air flowing plenum. The surface soil moisture content was reduced by suction removal of soil water followed by artificial rain to evaluate the soil-vapor partitioning function in T2TNT. The data showed the dramatic decline in DNT vapor concentrations expected as the surface soil moisture declined; and, then rebounded upon wetting. This phenomenon was modeled with T2TNT and showed excellent correlation.
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James M. Phelan, Stephen W. Webb, Matthew Gozdor, Mark Cal, and James L. Barnett "Effect of soil wetting and drying on DNT vapor flux: laboratory data and T2TNT model comparisons", Proc. SPIE 4394, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets VI, (18 October 2001);

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