18 October 2001 Sensor fusion for hand-held multisensor landmine detection
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Sensor fusion issues in a streamlined assimilation of multi-sensor information for landmine detection are discussed. In particular multi-sensor fusion in hand-held landmine detection system with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and metal detector sensors is investigated. The fusion architecture consists of feature extraction for individual sensors followed by a feed-forward neural network training to learn the feature space representation of the mine/no-mine classification. A correlation feature from GPR, and slope and energy feature from metal detector are used for discrimination. Various fusion strategies are discussed and results compared against each other and against individual sensors using ROC curves for the available multi-sensor data. Both feature level and decision level fusion have been investigated. Simple decision level fusion scheme based on Dempster-Shafer evidence accumulation, soft AND, MIN and MAX are compared. Feature level fusion using neural network training is shown to provide best results. However comparable performance is achieved using decision level sensor fusion based on Dempster-Shafer accumulation. It is noted that, the above simple feed-forward fusion scheme lacks a means to verify detections after a decision has been made. New detection algorithms that are more than anomaly detectors are needed. Preliminary results with features based on independent component analysis (ICA) show promising results towards this end.
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Sanjeev Agarwal, Sanjeev Agarwal, Venkat Sai Chander, Venkat Sai Chander, Partha Pratim Palit, Partha Pratim Palit, Joe Stanley, Joe Stanley, O. Robert Mitchell, O. Robert Mitchell, } "Sensor fusion for hand-held multisensor landmine detection", Proc. SPIE 4394, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets VI, (18 October 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.445427; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.445427

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