Teleoperated manipulators have been used for many years to perform tasks within hazardous environments. There are many similarities between teleoperators and robots, and these likenesses are delineated and reviewed. Applications and development activities in teleoperated systems are summarized on a worldwide basis. Teleopeator developments are examined for outer space, under water, and other hazardous environments. The unification of a robot and a teleoperator system into an autonomous, flexible machine is envisioned as the goal of future "telerobotic" research.
W R Hamel,
H. L. Martin,
"Robotics-Related Technology In The Nuclear Industry", Proc. SPIE 0442, Robotics and Robot Sensing Systems, (13 December 1983); doi: 10.1117/12.937933; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.937933