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12 June 2001 Superhigh-speed optoelectronics: technological fundamentals and economics
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Proceedings Volume 4425, Selected Papers from the International Conference on Optoelectronic Information Technologies; (2001)
Event: International Conference on Optoelectronic Information Technologies, 2000, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Silicon transistor speed limit is a little bit more than 1 Gbit/s. GaAs and related materials transistor homostructures permits to spread frequency and temperature ranges of signal processing, but did not give qualitative growth of the information flow transformation and processing speed rapidly growing in the modern society. A3B5 semiconductor heteroelectronics gives a good possibility to use new optoelectronics and quantum effects in nanostructures to jump up transistor parameters and create microlasers and other new high-speed optoelectronic devices. Nowadays most use the AlGaAs/GaAs and InGaAsP/InP heterostructures, which have good lattice matched substrates and solid state solution epitaxial layers and low dislocation density on heteroboundary. This gives high radiative recombination quantum yield and low noise in transistors and integrated circuits based on them. The main physical-technological steps of super high speed optoelectronics development and its high-speed performance particularly are: (1) GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures with matched crystal lattice (1963, Zh. Alferov, R. Kazarinov). (2) Quaternary system InGaAsP with the best possibility of operation of such parameters as energy gap, lattice constant and thermal spreading factor (1966, N. Sirota, V. Osinsky). (3) High quality lattice dismatched structures involving superlattice and coherent strained layers. (4) Increasing of state density and electron concentration in quantum wells, quantum dots and quantum wires. (5) Progress and commercialization of industrial production of molecular beam and metal organic vapor deposition epitaxy. (6) High quality wide energy gap materials, such as gallium nitride-based ternary system, which spreads an optical spectrum of devices up to blue region, give high power, temperature and radiation perfection. It is possible to represent integrated nanostructures as some quantum heterogeneous informative media with electron-photon and photon-electron transformation of two- or three dimensional (2D or 3D) information signals. Their high speed processing consists of traditional time modulation and super high speed 2D or 3D spatial modulation mode. In the last case quantum heterogeneous media gives us a large possibility to reach super high spatial frequencies, limited by wavelength of electrons in quantum wells. This is a value of order 106 lines per mm for electronic signals and of order 104 lines per mm for optical signals.
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V. Osinsky "Superhigh-speed optoelectronics: technological fundamentals and economics", Proc. SPIE 4425, Selected Papers from the International Conference on Optoelectronic Information Technologies, (12 June 2001);

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