The development of ultrashort pulse laser technology will have a strong impact on the advancement of laser machining. Ultrashort laser pulses can reduce the heat-affected zone and the shock-affected zone, resulting in much cleaner cuts, and therefore higher precision. Also, ultrashort laser pulses have shown remarkable opportunity for processing transparent materials such as glass, fused silica, and sapphire. However, acceptance of ultrafast technology is hindered by the size, cost, and complexity of ultrafast lasers. In this paper, we describe recent progress in fiber- based ultrafast laser technology which promises to be sufficiently compact, rugged, and potentially low-cost.