A review of the current state of the art in optical and electron beam lithography simulation is presented. Basic physical models are described and examples are given. In addition, rigorous electromagnetic simulation for mask topography is shown and the use of statistical modeling to predict feature size distributions in manufacturing is described. Finally, numerous examples of the use of lithography simulation and its impact on the semiconductor industry are offered.
Chris A. Mack, Chris A. Mack,
"Lithographic simulation: a review", Proc. SPIE 4440, Lithographic and Micromachining Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication, (9 November 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.448059; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.448059