5 December 2001 Requirements for the design and production of high numerical aperture objectives for 4-π confocal microscopy
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Abstract
We discuss the requirements on design and production regarding geometric and chromatic aberrations for objectives used in 4Pi confocal microscopy. We show that even the selection of a category 1/1 glass will not automatically assure that these requirements are met, due to residual variations in the Abbe number v within the manufacturer's tolerances. Consequently, the optical design has to take into consideration the possibility of balancing chromatic aberrations by varying selected air spacings in the final assembly of each individual objective. We also demonstrate, that for analyzing the influence of aberrations on the intensity distribution along the optical axis, a scalar diffraction theory is still applicable and very useful.
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Thomas Sure, Joachim Wesner, Joachim Heil, "Requirements for the design and production of high numerical aperture objectives for 4-π confocal microscopy", Proc. SPIE 4441, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering II, (5 December 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.449568; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.449568
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