12 November 2001 Nonadiabatic transient behavior of quantum well photodetectors
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In the presence of a time-dependent external source such as a bias electric field, an incident optical flux, or the temperature, electrons in quantum well devices experience non-adiabatic transport through the barrier layer between two adjacent quantum wells. This non-adiabatic transport process induces charge density fluctuations within each quantum well, resulting in several seemingly unrelated transient phenomena. When a time-dependent electric field is applied to the system, a dynamical breakdown and a zero-bias residual dark current in the quantum-well photodetectors are predicted theoretically. If a chopped time-dependent optical flux is incident on the system, a dynamical drop in the photo-responsivity with increasing chopping frequency and an emission-current spike as the optical shutter is opened are predicted. Finally, as the device temperature is varied with time, a counter-clockwise thermal hysteresis is found theoretically in the dark current curve as a function of the changing temperature. Experimental confirmation of the above theoretical predictions is presented.
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David A. Cardimona, Danhong Huang, Christian P. Morath, Hillary E. Norton, "Nonadiabatic transient behavior of quantum well photodetectors", Proc. SPIE 4454, Materials for Infrared Detectors, (12 November 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.448164; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.448164

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