13 December 2001 Analysis of poling-induced polymer waveguide losses in push-pull Mach-Zehnder modulators
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Abstract
Poling induced losses of split-ground plane, push-pull polymeric electro-optic modulators have been investigated. Two sources of loss are found: loss due to the presence of oxygen and loss due to deforming the waveguide structure by large poling fields. Deformation is the most severe at the edges of the electrodes, where the electric field amplitude is largest. Experiments were done by poling waveguides with different architectures and poling in air and in an inert atmosphere. There is an apparent rapid increase in poling induced loss (to the 4th power) with poling voltage due to the presence of oxygen (up to 6.5 dB/cm for poling field of 170 V/micrometers ), whereas loss due to deformation increases linearly with poling voltage (up to 2.5 dB/cm). Oxygen-induced loss can be minimized by poling in inert atmosphere, while deformation induced loss can be minimized by optimizing device architecture.
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Araz Yacoubian, Weiping Lin, David J. Olson, James H. Bechtel, "Analysis of poling-induced polymer waveguide losses in push-pull Mach-Zehnder modulators", Proc. SPIE 4455, Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, (13 December 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.450439; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.450439
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KEYWORDS
Electrodes

Waveguides

Polymers

Modulators

Modulation

Oxygen

Cladding

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