27 December 2001 Structural analysis of chalcogenide waveguides using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)
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In an effort to develop an improved medium for optical communication, chalcogenide glasses are being investigated for waveguide and integrated optical components. These glasses are attractive for integrated optics applications due to their good infrared transmission and high nonlinear Kerr effects. The fact that these glasses can be fabricated in thin films and optical fiber forms constitute a major advantage for future high-speed optical devices applications. However, to advance these novel characteristics, it is crucial to identify the structure/property relationship in the glass, in both bulk and film materials. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is an analytical tool that gives very useful information regarding compositional and structural analysis of the films, as well as a precise measurement of the film's layer thickness. Results obtained showed no apparent variation in composition and small (less than 10%) density variation in single layer As2S3 films. Multilayer films, which thickness were measured using SEM images, displayed compositional and density modifications associated with the annealing process. The same calculations were conducted after almost a year from the previous measurements to study changes induced due to film aging. Stoichiometric and thickness modifications, caused by aging, were observed in unannealed structures. No apparent changes were detected in annealed films. Waveguide Raman Spectroscopy was used as a complementary tool to identify the molecular features responsible for the changes.
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Clara Rivero, Patricia S. Sharek, Gero Nootz, Cedric Lopez, Kathleen A. Richardson, Alfons Schulte, Richard Irwin, Tigran V. Galstian, Vincent Hamel, Karine Turcotte, Alain Villeneuve, Real Valee, "Structural analysis of chalcogenide waveguides using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)", Proc. SPIE 4468, Engineering Thin Films with Ion Beams, Nanoscale Diagnostics, and Molecular Manufacturing, (27 December 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.452559; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.452559

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