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5 December 2001 Security analysis of public key watermarking schemes
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Abstract
Traditional watermarking systems require the complete disclosure of the watermarking key in the watermark verification process. In most systems an attacker is able to remove the watermark completely once the key is known, thus subverting the intention of copyright protection. To cope with this problem, public-key watermarking schemes were proposed that allow asymmetric watermark detection. Whereas a public key is used to insert watermarks in digital objects, the marks can be verified with a private key. Knowledge of this private key does not allow piracy. We describe two public-key watermarking schemes which are similar in spirit to zero-knowledge proofs. The key idea of one system is to verify a watermark in a blinded version of the document, where the scrambling is determined by the private key. A probabilistic protocol is constructed that allows public watermark detection with probability of 1/2; by iteration, the verifier can get any degree of certainty that the watermark is present. The second system is based on watermark attacks, using controlled counterfeiting to conceal real watermark data safely amid data useless to an attacker.
© (2001) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Scott A. Craver and Stefan Katzenbeisser "Security analysis of public key watermarking schemes", Proc. SPIE 4475, Mathematics of Data/Image Coding, Compression, and Encryption IV, with Applications, (5 December 2001); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.449579
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