Scientific findings and theoretical analysis over the past several years have increased the probability from extant life on Mars. Discoveries have revealed terrestrial organisms flourishing in environments thought hostile and barren of life. Experiments with extremophile organisms, including some of those newly discovered, have demonstrated their extraordinary and unanticipated hardiness, including under conditions comparable to, or approaching those on present-day Mars. Microorganisms subjected to extreme g forces survived shock as severe as meteoric impact. Calculations and experiments based on Viking data allow for water to be liquid on the surface of Mars for biologically significant periods. Direct observations of Mars by subsequent missions support this likelihood. These new developments provide a workable Panspermia model for the transport, survival and growth of terrestrial life on Mars. No insurmountable obstacles to their survival to the present have been demonstrated. Organisms transported to Mars from Earch and/or from other sources may have been responsible for the positive results returned from Mars by the Viking Labeled Release experiment in 1976. A simple robotic experiment can resolve the issue.