Polycapillary x-ray optics provide an innovative new way to control x-ray beams. Placing these optics after the object to be imaged provides very efficient rejection of Compton scatter, while allowing image magnification without loss of resolution, image demagnification, or image shaping to match with digital detectors. An extensive study of the effects of surface and profile defects have greatly enhanced the understanding of the manufacturing process and lead to improved reproducibility and manufacturability of the optics. Measurements were performed on magnifying tapers. The optics had measured primary transmissions greater than 50% and scatter transmission of less than 1%. For a 5-cm thick Lucite phantom, this resulted in a contrast enhancement compared to a conventional grid of nearly a factor of two. The magnification from the tapered capillary optics improved the MTF at all frequencies out to 1.9 times the original system resolution. Increases below the system resolution are most important because clinically relevant structures generally occupy lower spatial frequencies. Alternatively, placing a collimating optic and diffracting crystal before the patient provides sufficient monochromatic beam intensity for medical imaging. Contrast, resolution, and intensity measurements were performed with both high and low angular acceptance crystals. At 8 keV, contrast enhancement was a factor of 5 relative to the polychromatic case, in good agreement with theoretical values. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic subject contrast was more than a factor of 2 times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. An additional factor of two increase in contrast is expected from the removal of scatter obtained from using the air gap which is allowable from the parallel beam. The measured angular resolution after the crystal was 0.4 mrad for a silicon crystal. The realization of these applications has been advanced by the recent marked improvement in available optic quality and reproducibility. Manufacturing progress has been assisted by the development of simulation analyses which allow for increasingly accurate assessment of optics defects. Optics performance over the whole range of energy from 10 to 80 keV can often be matched with one or two fitting parameters. Continuing optics manufacturing challenges include the advance of applications at energies above 40 keV and the production of optics for imaging which are of adequate clinical size. Multioptic jigs designed to increase imaging area have been tested.