Amplitude modulated piezo-based locomotion requires one power amplifier for each quadrant electrode on the piezo-legs of miniature robots. Since each amplifier has a significant amount of quiescent current, several DC/DC converters must be embedded to source at least the total amount of quiescent current. In order to achieve a significant reduction in the overall size of the piezo-actuated robots, the number of DC/DC converters is reduced through frequency modulation. Using frequency modulation, the amplitudes of deflection or the step sizes are reduced by modulating the piezo-legs above the resonant frequency. Although the frequency modulated approach can result in much smaller robots than what can be achieved using the amplitude modulated technique, it has some drawbacks that the amplitude modulated approach does not have. First, the magnitudes of deflection of the piezo-legs using frequency modulation are typically more difficult to control. Secondly, for much smaller amplitudes of deflection, the onboard electronics must operate faster, yielding an increase in power consumption and an increase in temperature of the miniature robot, which in turn may affect sensitive embedded instruments. Furthermore, modulating the piezo-legs above the resonant frequency yields a reduction in efficiency, which translates into additional heat. When very small deflections are required, the risk of the temperature to rise beyond the Curie temperature of the piezo-material may also become an issue. All these factors must be considered carefully when frequency modulated piezo-based locomotion is used.