19 November 2001 Nanofabrication processes for single-ion implantation of silicon quantum computer devices
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We describe progress in a range of nanofabrication processes for the production of silicon-based quantum computer devices. The processes are based upon single-ion implantation to place phosphorus-31 atoms in accurate locations, precisely self-aligned to metal control gates. These fabrication schemes involve multi-layer resist and metal structures, electron beam lithography and multi-angled aluminium shadow evaporation. The key feature of all fabrication schemes is a gate pattern defined in a resist structure using electron beam lithography, used in conjunction with a second pattern written in another resist layer. The locations where the two patterns overlap define channels down to the substrate through which ions can be implanted, with the remaining metal/resist structure behaving as a mask. Further processing on the resist structures allows for deposition of the control gates and read-out structures. Central to this process is a new technique which allows for control of the implantation process at a single-ion level.
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Rita P. McKinnon, Rita P. McKinnon, Fay E. Stanley, Fay E. Stanley, Tilo Markus Buehler, Tilo Markus Buehler, Eric Gauja, Eric Gauja, Katia Peceros, Katia Peceros, Linda D. Macks, Linda D. Macks, Mladen Mitic, Mladen Mitic, Victor Chan, Victor Chan, Andrew S. Dzurak, Andrew S. Dzurak, Robert G. Clark, Robert G. Clark, Changyi Yang, Changyi Yang, David N. Jamieson, David N. Jamieson, Steven D. Prawer, Steven D. Prawer, } "Nanofabrication processes for single-ion implantation of silicon quantum computer devices", Proc. SPIE 4590, BioMEMS and Smart Nanostructures, (19 November 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.454618; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.454618

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