The problem of describing optical turbulent structures, arising in resonant media with high Fresnel numbers, is reviewed. The consideration is based on the probabilistic approach to pattern selection, ascribing a probability distribution of patterns to systems with multiple possible structures. The most probable structure corresponds to the minimal expansion exponent, or to the minimal expansion rate, characterizing the phase-space expansion of a dynamical system. Turbulent photon filamentation is studied. The most probable filament radius and the number of filaments are found, being in good agreement with experiment.