18 June 2002 F2-laser photosensitivity applications in germanosilicate fiber and planar waveguides
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Proceedings Volume 4640, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI; (2002); doi: 10.1117/12.433297
Event: Symposium on Integrated Optoelectronic Devices, 2002, San Jose, California, United States
Abstract
The energetic 7.9-eV photons of the F2 laser directly access bandgap states in germanosilicate glasses to provide a strong and direct channel for inducing refractive index changes in optical fibers and planar waveguides. In this paper, we review our F2-laser photosensitivity studies with an aim to assess prospects for shaping useful photonics structures directly inside the germanosilicate waveguides. We describe strong photosensitivity responses in standard telecommunication fibers and planar optical waveguides without the need for hydrogen loading, and compare with responses provided by traditional ultraviolet lasers. Because of the strong 157-nm absorption in the germanium-doped guiding layers, large non-uniform changes to refractive index are noted that offer opportunities for trimming phase errors and correcting waveguide birefringence in planar optical circuits. With hydrogen soaking, modest 157-nm pre-irradiation was found to 'lock-in' a permanent photosensitivity enhancement in the germanosilicate guiding core, permitting the formation of strong (40-dB) and stable fiber Bragg gratings with 248-nm KrF laser light. The 157-nm 'lock-in' mechanism is associated with Si-OH and Ge-OH defect formation and permanently enhances the ultraviolet photosensitivity response by several orders of magnitude above that for an untreated fiber without the aging related disadvantages of conventional hydrogen soaking. The unique opportunities for F2-laser photosensitivity applications in shaping and trimming photonic components will be outlined in this presentation.
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Kevin P. Chen, Peter R. Herman, Dragan Coric, Jianzhao Li, Xiaoli Midori Wei, Roderick S. Taylor, Cyril Hnatovsky, "F2-laser photosensitivity applications in germanosilicate fiber and planar waveguides", Proc. SPIE 4640, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, (18 June 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.433297; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.433297
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KEYWORDS
Hydrogen

Refractive index

Waveguides

Birefringence

Fiber Bragg gratings

Fiber lasers

Planar waveguides

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