21 May 2002 Characterization of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for fluorescence decay measurements
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Proceedings Volume 4650, Photodetector Materials and Devices VII; (2002) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.467676
Event: Symposium on Integrated Optoelectronic Devices, 2002, San Jose, California, United States
Abstract
Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APD) can be biased above the breakdown voltage to allow detection of single photons. Because of the increase in quantum efficiency, magnetic field immunity, robustness, longer operating lifetime and reduction in costs, solid-state detectors capable of operating at non-cryogenic temperatures and providing single photon detection capabilities provide attractive alternatives to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Shallow junction Geiger mode APD detectors provide the ability to manufacture photon detectors and detector arrays with CMOS compatible processing steps and allows the use of novel Silicon-on-Insulator(SoI) technology to provide future integrated sensing solutions. Previous work on Geiger mode APD detectors has focused on increasing the active area of the detector to make it more PMT like, easing the integration of discrete reaction, detection and signal processing into laboratory experimental systems. This discrete model for single photon detection works well for laboratory sized test and measurement equipment, however the move towards microfluidics and systems on a chip requires integrated sensing solutions. As we move towards providing integrated functionality of increasingly nanoscopic sized emissions, small area detectors and detector arrays that can be easily integrated into marketable systems, with sensitive small area single photon counting detectors will be needed. This paper will demonstrate the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulation of optical coupling that occurs in Geiger mode APDs. Fabricated Geiger mode APD detectors optimized for fluorescence decay measurements were characterized and preliminary results show excellent results for their integration into fluorescence decay measurement systems.
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John Carlton Jackson, John Carlton Jackson, Don Phelan, Don Phelan, Alan P. Morrison, Alan P. Morrison, R. Michael Redfern, R. Michael Redfern, Alan Mathewson, Alan Mathewson, } "Characterization of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for fluorescence decay measurements", Proc. SPIE 4650, Photodetector Materials and Devices VII, (21 May 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.467676; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.467676
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