5 April 2002 Pornographic image detection with Gabor filters
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Proceedings Volume 4668, Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing VII; (2002); doi: 10.1117/12.461673
Event: Electronic Imaging, 2002, San Jose, California, United States
Abstract
As Internet-enabled computers become ubiquitous in homes, schools, and other publicly accessible locations, there are more people 'surfing the net' who would prefer not to be exposed to offensive material. There is a lot of material freely available on the Internet that we, as a responsible and caring society, would like to keep our children from viewing. Pornographic image content is one category of material over which we would like some control. We have been conducting experiments to determine the effectiveness of using characteristic feature vectors and neural networks to identify semantic image content. This paper will describe our approach to identifying pornographic images using Gabor filters, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Correllograms, and Neural Networks. In brief, we used a set of 5,000 typical images available from the Internet, 20% of which were judged to be pornographic, to train a neural network. We then apply the trained neural network to feature vectors from images that had not been used in training. We measure our performance as Recall, how many of the verification images labeled pornographic were correctly identified, and Precision, how many images deemed pornographic by the neural network are in fact pornographic. The set of images that were used in the experiment described in this paper for its training and validation sets are freely available on the Internet. Freely available is an important qualifier, since high-resolution, studio-quality pornographic images are often protected by portals that charge members a fee to gain access to their material. Although this is not a hard and fast rule, many of the pornographic images that are available easily and without charge on the Internet are of low image quality. Some of these images are collages or contain textual elements or have had their resolution intentionally lowered to reduce their file size. These are the offensive images that a user, without a credit card, might inadvertently come across on the Internet. Identifying this type of pornographic pictures of low image quality poses particular challenges for any detection software. This paper will address some of the challenges and hurdles we faced in designing and carrying out our experiments. The paper will also discuss the main results of our experiments, as well as some confounds that, at present, limit the effectiveness of our approach to identifying pornographic images, and some directions that may be taken in future research.
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Kevan Durrell, Daniel J. C. Murray, "Pornographic image detection with Gabor filters", Proc. SPIE 4668, Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing VII, (5 April 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.461673; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.461673
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KEYWORDS
Neural networks

Image filtering

Internet

Image quality

Visualization

RGB color model

Principal component analysis

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