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29 April 2002 Communications approach to image steganography
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Steganography is the art of communicating a message by embedding it into multimedia data. It is desired to maximize the amount of hidden information (embedding rate) while preserving security against detection by unauthorized parties. An appropriate information-theoretic model for steganography has been proposed by Cachin. A steganographic system is perfectly secure when the statistics of the cover data and the stego data are identical, which means that the relative entropy between the cover data and the stego data is zero. For image data, another constraint is that the stego data must look like a typical image. A tractable objective measure for this property is the (weighted) mean squared error between the cover image and the stego image (embedding distortion). Two different schemes are investigated. The first one is derived from a blind watermarking scheme. The second scheme is designed specifically for steganography such that perfect security is achieved, which means that the relative entropy between cover data and stego data tends to zero. In this case, a noiseless communication channel is assumed. Both schemes store the stego image in the popular JPEG format. The performance of the schemes is compared with respect to security, embedding distortion and embedding rate.
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Joachim J. Eggers, Robert Baeuml, and Bernd Girod "Communications approach to image steganography", Proc. SPIE 4675, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, (29 April 2002);


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