29 April 2002 Image watermarking in the Fourier domain based on global features of concentric ring areas
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This paper presents a blind decoding watermarking scheme that takes advantage of two basic properties of the Fourier transform: The image information is transformed into frequency bands centered around the origin of the coordinate system and the image information is represented as phase and amplitude information, the latter being independent from shifts in the original image (i.e. pixel domain). These properties are exploited to embed a watermark that is inherently robust against shifts and rotation in the pixel domain and shows considerable robustness against cropping and downscaling as well. The amplitude part of the Fourier representation of the image is subdivided into sections. A pair of sections is used to embed one bit of watermark information with the bit value being represented by a predefined difference between the mean power values of the sections. The payload of the presented watermarking scheme strongly depends on the size of the image. Tests based on a light-weight implementation of the presented scheme were run with a watermark payload of 16 bits for images of 512 by 512 pixels in size.
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Wolfgang Funk, Wolfgang Funk, } "Image watermarking in the Fourier domain based on global features of concentric ring areas", Proc. SPIE 4675, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, (29 April 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.465319; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.465319


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