29 April 2002 Practical steganalysis of digital images: state of the art
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Steganography is the art of hiding the very presence of communication by embedding secret messages into innocuous looking cover documents, such as digital images. Detection of steganography, estimation of message length, and its extraction belong to the field of steganalysis. Steganalysis has recently received a great deal of attention both from law enforcement and the media. In our paper, we classify and review current stego-detection algorithms that can be used to trace popular steganographic products. We recognize several qualitatively different approaches to practical steganalysis - visual detection, detection based on first order statistics (histogram analysis), dual statistics methods that use spatial correlations in images and higher-order statistics (RS steganalysis), universal blind detection schemes, and special cases, such as JPEG compatibility steganalysis. We also present some new results regarding our previously proposed detection of LSB embedding using sensitive dual statistics. The recent steganalytic methods indicate that the most common paradigm in image steganography - the bit-replacement or bit substitution - is inherently insecure with safe capacities far smaller than previously thought.
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Jessica Fridrich, Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan, Miroslav Goljan, } "Practical steganalysis of digital images: state of the art", Proc. SPIE 4675, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, (29 April 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.465263; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.465263


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