29 April 2002 Wavelet-based reversible watermarking for authentication
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In the digital information age, digital content (audio, image, and video) can be easily copied, manipulated, and distributed. Copyright protection and content authentication of digital content has become an urgent problem to content owners and distributors. Digital watermarking has provided a valuable solution to this problem. Based on its application scenario, most digital watermarking methods can be divided into two categories: robust watermarking and fragile watermarking. As a special subset of fragile watermark, reversible watermark (which is also called lossless watermark, invertible watermark, erasable watermark) enables the recovery of the original, unwatermarked content after the watermarked content has been detected to be authentic. Such reversibility to get back unwatermarked content is highly desired in sensitive imagery, such as military data and medical data. In this paper we present a reversible watermarking method based on an integer wavelet transform. We look into the binary representation of each wavelet coefficient and embed an extra bit to expandable wavelet coefficient. The location map of all expanded coefficients will be coded by JBIG2 compression and these coefficient values will be losslessly compressed by arithmetic coding. Besides these two compressed bit streams, an SHA-256 hash of the original image will also be embedded for authentication purpose.
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Jun Tian, Jun Tian, } "Wavelet-based reversible watermarking for authentication", Proc. SPIE 4675, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, (29 April 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.465329; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.465329

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