9 May 2002 Three-dimensional imaging using low-end C-arm systems
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During the last years, three-dimensional X-ray imaging has become a well-established imaging modality, setting the golden standard for spatial resolution in three-dimensional X-ray imaging. Firstly introduced on a motorized C-arm system, it gained benefit from the high spatial resolution of the image intensifier. Using cone-beam reconstruction, it provided fast access to truly three-dimensional imaging with isotropic voxel dimensions. However, the non-rigid mechanics and the image distortion in the image intensifier required dedicated calibration processes and obligated the developers to use the most stable and reliable system in the C-arm device family. The need for system calibration also required the system to be able to reproducibly adjust the C-arm to the pre-calibrated positions, which seemed only possible with the motorized movement of a high-end system. On mobile, non-motorized C-arm systems, which are often used for guiding surgical procedures, however, 3D application has not been feasible due to the non-reproducibility of the mechanical movement. In this paper, first results regarding the feasibility of this approach are presented. The data were acquired on a Philips BV 26 surgical C-arm. This device is fully movable. The C arc is adjusted manually.
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Joern Luetjens, Reiner Koppe, Erhard Klotz, Michael Grass, Volker Rasche, "Three-dimensional imaging using low-end C-arm systems", Proc. SPIE 4684, Medical Imaging 2002: Image Processing, (9 May 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.467239; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.467239

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