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11 April 2002 Comparison between different encoding schemes for synthetic aperture imaging
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Synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound (STAU) imaging can create images with as low as 2 emissions, making it attractive for 3D real-time imaging. Two are the major problems to be solved: (1) complexity of the hardware involved, and (2) poor image quality due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR). We have solved the first problem by building a scanner capable of acquiring data using STAU in real-time. The SNR is increased by using encoded signals, which make it possible to send more energy in the body, while reserving the spatial and contrast resolution. The performance of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal encoding was investigated. Experiments on wire phantom in water were carried out to quantify the gain from the different encodings. The gain in SNR using an FM modulated pulse is 12 dB. The penetration depth of the images was studied using tissue mimicking phantom with frequency dependent attenuation of 0.5 dB/(cm MHz). The combination of spatial and temporal encoding have highest penetration depth. Images to a depth of 110 mm, can successfully be made with contrast resolution comparable to that of a linear array image. The in-vivo scans show that the motion artifacts do not significantly influence the performance of the STAU.
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Svetoslav Nikolov and Joergen Arendt Jensen "Comparison between different encoding schemes for synthetic aperture imaging", Proc. SPIE 4687, Medical Imaging 2002: Ultrasonic Imaging and Signal Processing, (11 April 2002);

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