1 July 2002 Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications
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Abstract
The performance of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) used to reflect UV (EUV) radiation in an EUV + hydrocarbon (NC) vapor environment can be improved by optimizing the silicon capping layer thickness on the MLM in order to minimize the initial buildup of carbon on MLMs. Carbon buildup is undesirable since it can absorb EUV radiation and reduce MLM reflectivity. A set of Mo/Si MLMs deposited on Si wafers was fabricated such that each MLM had a different Si capping layer thickness ranging form 2 nm to 7 nm. Samples from each MLM wafer were exposed to a combination of EUV light + (HC) vapors at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron in order to determine if the Si capping layer thickness affected the carbon buildup on the MLMs. It was found that the capping layer thickness had a major influence on this 'carbonizing' tendency, with the 3 nm layer thickness providing the best initial resistance to carbonizing and accompanying EUV reflectivity loss in the MLM. The Si capping layer thickness deposited on a typical EUV optic is 4.3 nm. Measurements of the absolute reflectivities performed on the Calibration and Standards beamline at the ALS indicated the EUV reflectivity of the 3 nm-capped MLM was actually slightly higher than that of the normal, 4 nm Si-capped sample. These results show that he use of a 3 nm capping layer represents an improvement over the 4 nm layer since the 3 nm has both a higher absolute reflectivity and better initial resistance to carbon buildup. The results also support the general concept of minimizing the electric field intensity at the MLM surface to minimize photoelectron production and, correspondingly, carbon buildup in a EUV + HC vapor environment.
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Michael E. Malinowski, Michael E. Malinowski, Chip Steinhaus, Chip Steinhaus, W. Miles Clift, W. Miles Clift, Leonard E. Klebanoff, Leonard E. Klebanoff, Stanley Mrowka, Stanley Mrowka, Regina Soufli, Regina Soufli, } "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications", Proc. SPIE 4688, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, (1 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.472320; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.472320
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