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1 July 2002 Optimization of a dense plasma focus device as a light source for EUV lithography
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Abstract
Since the initial demonstration of EUV emission with Xenon as a source gas in Cymer's Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) device, significant effort has been spent exploring the parameter space for optimization of efficient generation of EUV radiation. Parameters included in this investigation are He and Xe pressure and flow rates, electrode geometries, pre-ionization characteristics, and duty factor related performance issues. In these investigations it was found that the location of the He (buffer gas) and Xe (working gas) gas injection ports as well as the pressures and flow rates of the gas mixture components had a strong impact on EUV emission efficiency. Additional constraints on the gas recipe are also derived from gas absorption of the EUV radiation and the desire to provide debris mitigation properties. Best results to date have been obtained with an axially symmetric buffer gas injection scheme coupled with axial Xe injection through the central electrode. The highest conversion efficiency obtained was 0.42 percent at 12.4 J of input energy. Measurements of energy stability show a 10 percent standard deviation at near optimum EUV output. The matching of the drive circuit to the pinch as determined by the damping of the voltage overshoot waveforms was found to depend strongly on the He and Xe pressures. Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis of the debris emitted from the source shows that the primary sources of the debris are the central electrode and the insulator. No evidence of cathode material has been found. In addition to efforts toward more efficient operation, first phase efforts of thermal engineering have been undertaken, which have led to continuous operation at 200 Hertz with conventional direct water cooling. The system can be operated at higher repetition rates with proportionally lower duty cycles. The data will show the distribution of thermal power throughout the whole system. This more detailed understanding of the thermal power flow allows us to better determine the ultimate high volume manufacturing potential of this source technology.
© (2002) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Igor V. Fomenkov, William N. Partlo, Richard M. Ness, Ian Roger Oliver, Stephan T. Melnychuk, Oleh V. Khodykin, and Norbert R. Boewering "Optimization of a dense plasma focus device as a light source for EUV lithography", Proc. SPIE 4688, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, (1 July 2002); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.472339
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