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1 July 2002 Thermomechanical global response of the EUVL wafer during exposure
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading technologies for Next-Generation Lithography. Continued progress in its development will be facilitated by characterizing all sources of distortion in the chip fabrication process. These include the thermal distortions of the wafer caused by deposited EUVL energy during scanning exposure. Absorbed energy from the beam produces temperature increases and structural displacements in the wafer, which directly contribute to pattern placement errors and image blur. Because of the vacuum conditions of EUVL systems, wafer chucking will be electrostatic, which has a number of advantages over mechanical clamping systems. The goals of this research are to predict the transient temperature increases and corresponding displacements (locally and globally) consistent with the thermomechanical boundary conditions of the wafer. Both thermal and structural finite element models were constructed to numerically simulate wafer exposure. The response of the wafer is relatively sensitive to the interface conditions between the substrate and electrostatic chuck. Thus, parametric studies of the response to changes in the contact conductance and the friction coefficient were performed and are presented in this paper.
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Jaehyuk Chang, Carl J. Martin, Roxann L. Engelstad, and Edward G. Lovell "Thermomechanical global response of the EUVL wafer during exposure", Proc. SPIE 4688, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, (1 July 2002);

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