1 July 2002 Xenon target performance characteristics for laser-produced plasma EUV sources
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Laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) are being developed as light sources for EUV lithography. To meet the requirements for high-volume manufacturing, LPP EUV sources must generate intense EUV output in the 13.5 nm band, and minimize source-induced degradation of EUV optics allowing hundreds of hours of clean operation. Xenon has been identified as a promising target material for LPP EUV light sources, with the potential for both high-efficiency EUV generation, and low optics contamination. Several dense xenon target configurations have been tested including aerosol sprays, continuous liquid streams, condensed xenon droplets, and frozen solid xenon. Important LPP performance characteristics, such as conversion efficiency, EUV radiation distribution, EUV optics degradation by material erosion and/or deposition, and the physical interface to the EUV optical system, are strongly influenced by the xenon target design. The performance of xenon targets with measured conversion efficiencies in the 0.4 percent to 1.4 percent range is reported. Prospects for xenon targets to reach the EUV power generation and contamination goals for production lithography tools are addressed.
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Harry Shields, Steven W. Fornaca, Michael B. Petach, Mark Michaelian, R. Daniel McGregor, Richard H. Moyer, Randall J. St. Pierre, "Xenon target performance characteristics for laser-produced plasma EUV sources", Proc. SPIE 4688, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, (1 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.472266; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.472266

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