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24 July 2002 Designing photoresist systems for CO2-based microlithography
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) based microlithography (dry microlithography) represents an immense opportunity for the semiconductor industry to keep pace with Moore's Law while reducing its environmental impact. Currently, rinsing <130nm developed images with supercritical CO2 is the only method which can prevent image collapse at this resolution. In this article, we will discuss CO2's ability to improve lithographic performance as we demonstrate its potential to replace the most solvent intensive steps of the microlithography process; spin coating, developing, and stripping. During these steps, semiconductor manufacturers produce vast amounts of organic and aqueous waste, which are detrimental to our ecosystem. However, before CO2 can replace conventional solvents, photoresist systems must be designed and synthesized to be compatible with CO2. These photoresists must be soluble in liquid CO2 to insure that uniform thin-films can be produced by spin coating while maintaining characteristics of conventional resist systems such as low absorbance, high sensitivity, solubility contrast, good resolution, and etch resistance. Using our CO2 compatible resist system, we will show the ability of CO2 to spin coat uniform thin-films which (after exposing and PEB) can be developed using scCO2 to produce lithography features that may be stripped in CO2. Thus, revealing the enormous potential of CO2 to provide the microlithography industry an opportunity to escape its water and organic solvent dependence.
© (2002) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Devin Flowers, Erik N. Hoggan, Ruben G. Carbonell, and Joseph M. DeSimone "Designing photoresist systems for CO2-based microlithography", Proc. SPIE 4690, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX, (24 July 2002);

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