24 July 2002 Effect of humidity on deprotection kinetics in chemically amplified resists
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Water is known to play a key role in the solubility switching reaction of novolac-diazonaphthoquinone photoresists and certain chemically amplified resists. In order to quantitatively study these effects, an environmental chamber was built in which the % RH could be controlled while the extent of acid catalyzed deprotection was monitored during the post exposure bake by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy. The extent of acid catalyzed deprotection of tBOC, KRS-XE, UV6, and a tBOC-poly(hydroxystyrene) copolymer have been measured as a function of time over a range of 0-60 % RH. For tBOC, the deprotection reaction rate was found to slow considerably as the %RH was increased. Also, the relative film shrinkage varied considerably with varying % RH. Several possible mechanisms for the dependence of the reaction rate and thickness loss on % RH were investigated. For KRS-XE, the deprotection reaction kinetics were found to increase as the % RH was increased, which was an expected trend. For UV6 and the tBOC-PHOST copolymer, no change in deprotection reaction rate was observed with changes in %RH.
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Sean D. Burns, Sean D. Burns, David R. Medeiros, David R. Medeiros, Heather F. Johnson, Heather F. Johnson, Gregory M. Wallraff, Gregory M. Wallraff, William D. Hinsberg, William D. Hinsberg, C. Grant Willson, C. Grant Willson, "Effect of humidity on deprotection kinetics in chemically amplified resists", Proc. SPIE 4690, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX, (24 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474230; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474230

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