24 July 2002 Highly transparent resist platforms for 157-nm microlithography: an update
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Abstract
Hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol-functionalized acrylate monomers and their (co)polymers were prepared as photoresist platforms for 157 nm imaging. In order to balance transparency with other desirable traits such as etch resistance, we developed several copolymer systems. One is using 2-methyl adamantyl methacrylate as a comonomer, and the copolymer system showed better dissolution contrast compared to the copolymer with tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate without sacrificing transparency. To further improve the absorption properties at 157 nm, monomers having (alpha) -trifluoromethyl group were prepared and polymerized in anionic mechanism. The product polymer was unexpectedly transparent at 157 nm (A = 1.6 micrometers -1) in spite that all the monomers contain carbonyl group. The second system is the copolymer with p-t-butoxy-tetrafluorostyrene. p-Hydroxy-tetrafluorostyrene and p-t-butoxy-tetrafluorostyrene were polymerized radically using AIBN in good yield, and the two resulting polymers showed distinctive solubility differences in aqueous base solution. Finally, this paper describes the synthesis of new monomers having fluorine (e.g CF3- group) in the vicinity of the double bond to improve transparency at 157 nm. Due to the lower electron density of the double bond, these monomers can be copolymerized with electron-rich vinyl monomers using radical initiators.
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Vaishali Raghu Vohra, Katsuji Douki, Young-Je Kwark, Xiang-Qian Liu, Christopher Kemper Ober, Young C. Bae, Will Conley, Daniel Miller, Paul Zimmerman, "Highly transparent resist platforms for 157-nm microlithography: an update", Proc. SPIE 4690, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX, (24 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474169; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474169
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