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30 July 2002 Contamination rates of optical surfaces at 157 nm in the presence of hydrocarbon impurities
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Photodeposition rates for ten hydrocarbon species have been measured on CaF2 substrates under 157-nm irradiation in the presence of ppm scale levels of oxygen. The species are representative of hydrocarbon based compounds observed in outgassing studies of common build materials used in 157-nm based lithographic systems. Photodeposition rates have also been measured for a subset of the hydrocarbon species on a MgF2 thin film, six anti-reflective dielectric stacks, and fluorine doped fused silica for comparison with the results on CaF2 substrates. Two contamination processes are observed. One is the formation of an equilibrium layer on the surfaces. The other is a quasi-permanent contamination which is most pronounced at elevated levels of contaminant.
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Theodore M. Bloomstein, Vladimir Liberman, Mordechai Rothschild, Stephen T. Palmacci, D. E. Hardy, and Jan H. C. Sedlacek "Contamination rates of optical surfaces at 157 nm in the presence of hydrocarbon impurities", Proc. SPIE 4691, Optical Microlithography XV, (30 July 2002);

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