30 July 2002 Defect printability of alternating phase-shift mask: a critical comparison of simulation and experiment
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An alternative phase shift mask (alt-PSM) is a promising device for extending optical lithography to finer design rules. There have been few reports, however, on the mask's ability to identify phase defects. We report here an alt-PSM of a dual-trench type for KrF exposure, with programmed quartz defects used to evaluate defect printability by measuring aerial images with a Zeiss MSM100 measuring system. The experimental results are simulated using the TEMPEST program. First, a critical comparison of the simulation and the experiment is conducted. The actual measured topography of quartz defects are used in the simulation. Moreover, a general simulation study on defect printability using an alt-PSM for ArF exposure is conducted. The defect dimensions, which produce critical CD errors are determined by simulation that takes into account the full 3-dimensional structure of phase defects as well as a simplified structure. The critical dimensions of an isolated defect identified by the alt-PSM of a single-trench type for ArF exposure are 240 nm in bottom diameter and 50 degrees in height (phase) for the cylindrical shape and 240 nm in bottom diameter and 90 degrees in height (phase) for the rotating trapezoidal shape, where the CD error limit is +/- 5%.
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Ken Ozawa, Ken Ozawa, Tooru Komizo, Tooru Komizo, Koji Kikuchi, Koji Kikuchi, Hidetoshi Ohnuma, Hidetoshi Ohnuma, Hiroichi Kawahira, Hiroichi Kawahira, } "Defect printability of alternating phase-shift mask: a critical comparison of simulation and experiment", Proc. SPIE 4691, Optical Microlithography XV, (30 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474479; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474479

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