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30 July 2002 LER as structural fluctuation of resist reaction and developer percolation
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Line edge roughness (LER) in chemically amplified resists (CARs) is analyzed as a fluctuation in acid catalyzed reaction to determine molecular solubility and developer percolation. Two probability processes to cause LER are modeled: the local acid generation/diffusion process and the main reaction/developer percolation processes. LER caused by fluctuation in the main reaction and percolation is found to be significantly larger than molecular size. Dependence of LER on various parameters is clarified, such as acid concentration, diffusion length, molecular sizes, protection ratio and its variation, and image. Our results suggested a trade-off relation between the acid fluctuation component and the main reaction component of LER in most ArF resists today. High contrast exposure characteristics of the dissolution rate in CARs today are also explained with the model.
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Hiroshi Fukuda and Atsuko Yamaguchi "LER as structural fluctuation of resist reaction and developer percolation", Proc. SPIE 4691, Optical Microlithography XV, (30 July 2002);

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