30 July 2002 Modified Rayleigh equation: impact of image fluctuation on imaging performance
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The Rayleigh equation given by R equals k1 X (lambda) /NA is often used to predict the resolution (R) of optical lithography. Since the design rule is approaching half of wavelength, however, lithographic performance imperfectly follows the Rayleigh equation. In other words, the constant k1 does not represent the process difficulty expressed as contrast, exposure dose latitude, and mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). We propose a modified Rayleigh equation that considers the influence of image fluctuation on lithographic resolution, and confirmed that lithographic performance can be predicted more accurately by the modified equation than by the conventional equation. According to the modified equation, resolution will not be more enhanced than that predicted by the conventional Rayleigh equation, even if lens numerical aperture is increased.
© (2002) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Seiji Matsuura, Takeo Hashimoto, "Modified Rayleigh equation: impact of image fluctuation on imaging performance", Proc. SPIE 4691, Optical Microlithography XV, (30 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474527; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474527

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