12 July 2002 Infrastructure for model-based OPC development in the deep submicron era
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In recent years, optical proximity correction (OPC) has become major technology to compensate the undesirable pattern distortions caused by systematic photolithography and etch variations. Model based OPC usually utilizes a scalar method to model diffraction limitations and coherence of optical system and empirical models to include etch variations. By calibrating the simulator to the experiential data from the focus exposure matrix (FEM) wafers, the lithography and etch errors can be predicted to some extent for 1D structures such as long lines and gaps. However, it has been difficult to predict the printability of such 2D patterns as line-ends, islands and small features with the simplified simulator. Furthermore, since the numerical aperture (NA) tends to increase in the state-of-the-art lithography and the wafer and mask topographies are becoming more complex, the optical simulator can no longer calculate aerial image correctly.
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Zhengrong Zhu, Dennis J. Ciplickas, Andrzej J. Strojwas, "Infrastructure for model-based OPC development in the deep submicron era", Proc. SPIE 4692, Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics, (12 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.475678; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.475678


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