11 July 2002 Bending of partially sulfonated ionic electroactive polymer gels in DC electric fields: hydrated cation effect and applications
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Abstract
Two ionic electroactive polymer (EAP) gels, crosslinked partially sulfonated poly(styren-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b- styrene) (S-SEBS) and partially sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene (S-XL-PS), exhibit reversible bending in low DC electric fields when immersed in salt solutions. Both gels bent toward the cathode when pre-equilibrated in salt solutions. The steady-state bending angle increased as the size of the hydrated cation of the salt increased. The initial speed of bending increased as the mobility of the hydrated cation increased. Both the steady-state bending angle and initial speed of bending reached a maximum at an intermediate salt concentration, which varied little with the type of the salt. The time needed to reach the steady- state bending angle was associated with the time needed for the major hydrated cations to transport through the gel slabs. When the S-XL-PS gel ws pre-equilibrated in distilled water before the bending experiments, the gel first bent toward the anode before reversing toward the cathode in 0.065 - 0.08 M (C4H9)4NHSO4 (TBA) solutions. Such bending behavior did not occur in TBA at other concentrations (0.005 - 0.06 M), nor in other salt solutions Na2SO4, Cs2SO4, (CH3)4NHSO4 (TMA) and the S-SEBS gel. Actuation performance of gels of the above polymers and their nanoparticle composites are compared and discussed.
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Li Yao, Sonja Krause, "Bending of partially sulfonated ionic electroactive polymer gels in DC electric fields: hydrated cation effect and applications", Proc. SPIE 4695, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (11 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.475198; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.475198
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