11 July 2002 Electrically induced permanent strain in ionic polymer-metal composite actuators
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Numerous researchers have shown that ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators are capable of large strains when subjected to relatively small electric fields. In this paper, we present data showing that, with some electrical inputs, a portion of the strain remains once the electric field is removed. The remaining strain is on the order of 0.1%, and its magnitude is correlated to the total charge delivered to the actuator. Several experiments were conducted to explore the relationship between the electrically induced permanent strain and input shape, actuator geometry, and boundary conditions. The permanent strain magnitude was found to increase with actuator length and with the magnitude of a pulse input. For 20 second pulse inputs applied to a 5mm x 29mm actuator, the ratio of the permanent strain to the total electric charge delivered per unit actuator length was approximately 10 %strain/(C/mm). This ratio dropped as pulse duration was increased. A comparison of strain energy associated with the permanent strain to the total electrical work done on the actuator yielded values on the order of 5(mu) J/J. Previous research has indicated that IPMCs are not suitable for DC actuation. However, the permanent strain phenomenon may provide a means by which IPMCs can be used as DC actuators.
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Kenneth M. Newbury, Kenneth M. Newbury, Donald J. Leo, Donald J. Leo, } "Electrically induced permanent strain in ionic polymer-metal composite actuators", Proc. SPIE 4695, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (11 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.475150; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.475150

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